аскорил инструкция тойота функарго руководство руководство по лабораторным методам диагностики инструкция управляющего магазином должностная инструкция водителя d link 2640u инструкция руководство по ремонту шевроле вива sportage руководство изофра спрей инструкция руководство по эксплуатации автомобиля nexia korg pa50 инструкция руководство горьковской железной дороги сборник инструкций по охране труда руководство hyundai getz руководство по ремонту фольксваген тигуан инструкция по пользованию iphone анализ технического руководства руководство по эксплуатации опель астра инструкция автомагнитолы pioneer аспирин кардио инструкция по применению руководство по ремонту хонда сабер инструкция к телефону iphone 3gs долар таблетки инструкция тералиджен инструкция по применению скачать руководство лансер 9 универсальный пульт maxmedia инструкция finepix s1600 руководство пользователя pocketbook pro 602 руководство пользователя jvc kd r407 инструкция skoda руководство по эксплуатации руководство bmw 318i инструкция по эксплуатации навигатора explay иж 2126 руководство 1с руководство пользователя торговля скачать инструкция по ремонту пежо 206 руководство по эксплуатации sungarden руководство по эксплуатации l200 кеналог 40 инструкция nissan murano руководство по ремонту ноутбуки asus руководство должностная инструкция hr менеджера psp 3008 руководство инструкция по мойке автомобиля motorola tlkr t3 инструкция руководство по ремонту эксплуатации 2 мазь проктогливенол инструкция методологическое руководство бухгалтерским учетом курсовая анализ технического руководства saturn котел инструкция вифироновая мазь инструкция стили руководства и конфликты инструкции к стиральным машинам indesit руководство по эксплуатации вега микроволновка самсунг инструкция руководство камаз iriver n73 инструкция период коллективного руководства philips руководство по эксплуатации инструкция по эксплуатации телевизора thomson руководство по фотографии bmw 525 руководство по ремонту цефуроксим инструкция по применению руководство по ремонту mercedes benz suzuki escudo руководство по эксплуатации синупрет инструкция по применению цена инструкция canon mp630 скачать классическое руководство инструкция по ремонту рено лагуна honda capa инструкция должностная инструкция машиниста кнс руководство по ремонту альмера классик инструкция по эксплуатации монитора lg pioneer vsx d712 инструкция руководство пользователя fifa 2011 должностная инструкция начальника отдела пто руководство по эксплуатации пежо 807 руководство по volvo s60 метронидазол мазь инструкция 1с версия 7.7 руководство пользователя скачать руководство fl studio 9 сумамед инструкция по применению суспензия 2114 руководство asus p5b руководство пользователя инструкция по эксплуатации холодильника руководство пользователя томагавк 9030 21074 руководство по эксплуатации передача москва инструкция по применению getz руководство по ремонту скачать сигнализация cenmax инструкция honda hr v руководство скачать corolla руководство по эксплуатации афлубин назе инструкция руководство по эксплуатации тахо руководство по ремонту двигателя 2с должностная инструкция контрольная работа руководство по эксплуатации canon d link 804hv инструкция одноразовые подгузники популярное руководство пользователя руководство по эксплуатации ауди 6 должностная инструкция договорного отдела инструкция thomson 21mg10kg инструкция по установке дефлектора капота купить национальное руководство по акушерству руководство по эксплуатации самолета инструкция по сборке мебели скачать техническое руководство ваз 2107i руководство скачать d link dir 615 инструкция методы руководства менеджмент система коллективного руководства инструкция по эксплуатации casio lumix lx3 инструкция тойота карина руководство лиотон инструкция цена руководство по ремонту хонда назонекс инструкция цена
Current status of manuscript collections in Cambodia’s monasteries

When weighing the impact of the terrible havoc suffered by Cambodia’s literary heritage, a number of factors must be taken into consideration. It is assumed that the destruction of manuscripts in monasteries, as massive as it might have been, was blind, in other words, no particular text was destroyed for what it was. Thus, the most common texts suffered the greatest destruction, but such writings are also those of which the largest number of traces remains. On the other hand, certain rare texts were totally lost, but not necessarily because of any special determination to destroy them.

On a very broad scale, it would be expected that investigation of the remains of many sites would enable the reconstitution of a rather plausible theoretical image of what Cambodia’s literature, notably religious, amounted to before the disaster. Yet, the way the manuscripts were produced made each of them a unique object, the qualities of which were a reflection of the copyist’s skill. The copies would therefore have contained variants and paleographic riches now lost for good, although one monastery might still contain one or more copies of a work that had been destroyed in other monasteries.

However, it must be observed that among the three main types of documents, (1) the very long bundles of ollas, the satras (sāstrā), (2) the shorter ones, vien (vān), and (3) the kraing (krāṃṅ), i.e. books written with ink on traditional paper folded as a screen (or large folio), the latter seem to have stood up much less well physically to the vicissitudes of the times.

Moreover, many of these kraing may have been the private property of a monastery achar or of a kru, which, in a period where this status was out of favor with the governing class, was a further danger for the conservation of such documents. This observation is meaningful to the extent that in the presentation of Khmer books, there generally exists a close relationship between the form and content, between the text that is transcribed and its physical presentation: one text may be found rather in the form of 12 thin bundles, while another, of the same length, will usually be etched on one thick bundle; one text will be more often inscribed on the folded paper of a kraing, while another will almost invariably be etched on a vien.

This relationship is sometimes determined by the use that was made of the text: kraing were often easy to make because they were written rather than etched; they had broad enough surfaces to allow for the inclusion of sketches, figurations or mantra, that sometimes extended over several folds of the screen, which was not possible on the narrow palm-leaf ollas. Also, because of their size and pattern, and because it was possible to write texts on them in large lettering, they were traditionally used for the transcription of texts intended to be read simultaneously by several persons at a time during a ceremony, without having to be held by hand. The literature traditionally handed down on kraing, and that suffered serious losses, thus largely involved two categories of texts: those that were read regularly in a group, such as “Monk’s Discipline” (bhikkhu pātimokkh), or at ceremonies for the “Consecration of a Buddhist Image” (buddhābhisek). These texts are fortunately encountered elsewhere, etched on satra. On the other hand, the contents of a great many kraing seems to have been composed of collections of disparate texts put together according to the personal considerations and order of associations of a master, to modes of representation and sometimes to a particular mnemotechnical process, each one thus being a unique book that has been lost forever. These are essentially the “Books of Recognition of Criteria” (ākāravatā), “Treatises on Prediction” (kpuon ṭassan dāy), “Meditation” (kammaṭṭhān) texts, compendia of “Traditional Doctrines” (krāṃṅ dhaṛm purāṇ), etc.

It is also observed that to make up for the terrible effects of the destruction of Buddhist texts in virtually all monasteries of Cambodia, some individuals, monks or laypersons, undertook the recopying of a certain book needed perhaps for recitation in connection with a certain ritual or for which they may have had a particular devotion. In some instances, urgency or destitution may have meant recopying these texts on simple European-style school notebooks, and generally the new copyist would try to reproduce the material form of a traditional satra or vien using strips of paperboard cut out and bound into bundles, or even with modern paper folded into a screen, a krāṃṅ, in order to reproduce as closely as possible the medium traditionally used for the book containing the etched text that he wished to recopy. Not only the form and volume numbering of the original were imitated, but passages etched on the model in round lettering (mūl) would be retranscribed in ballpoint pen in round lettering on the copy, while those that were etched in inclined lettering (jrīeṅ) would be rewritten in inclined lettering.

In recent years, we are even seeing an upsurge in the production of texts imprinted on latania leaves, which had started prior to the outbreak of the war.